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blockquote. ビタミンは、生物の生存・生育に微量に必要な栄養素のうち、炭水化物・タンパク質・脂質以外の有機化合物の総称である(なお栄養素のうち無機物はミネラルである)。文献:ビタミン


blockquote. Vitamers by definition are convertible to the active form of the vitamin in the body, and are sometimes inter-convertible to one another, as well… Vitamins have diverse biochemical functions. Some, such as vitamin D, have hormone-like functions as regulators of mineral metabolism, or regulators of cell and tissue growth and differentiation (such as some forms of vitamin A). Others function as antioxidants (e.g., vitamin E and sometimes vitamin C). The largest number of vitamins, the B complex vitamins, function as precursors for enzyme cofactors, that help enzymes in their work as catalysts in metabolism. In this role, vitamins may be tightly bound to enzymes as part of prosthetic groups: For example, biotin is part of enzymes involved in making fatty acids. Source:

Generic Name Vitamer 一般名 ビタマー
Vitamin A Retinol ビタミンA レチノールなど
Retinal レチナール
α-Carotene α-カロテン
β-Carotene β-カロテン
Lycopene リコピン
Retinoic Acid ビタミンA~1~ レチノイン酸
ビタミンA~2~ 3-デヒドロ体
Vitamin B1 thiamine ビタミンB~1~ チアミン
Vitamin B2 riboflavin ビタミンB~2~ リボフラビン
Vitamin B3 niacin ビタミンB~3~ ナイアシン
Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid ビタミンB~5~ パントテン酸
Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine ピリドキシン
Pyridoxamine ビタミンB~6~ ピリドキサミン
Pyridoxal ピリドキサール
Vitamin B7 biotin ビタミンB~7~ ビオチン
Vitamin B9 folic acid ビタミンB~9~ 葉酸
Folinic acid
Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin ビタミンB12 シアノコバラミン
Hydroxycobalamin ヒドロキソコバラミン
Vitamin C Ascorbic acid ビタミンC アスコルビン酸
ビタミンD エルゴカルシフェロール
Vitamin E Tocopherols ビタミンE トコフェロール
Tocotrienols トコトリエノール
Vitamin K Phylloquinone ビタミンK フィロキノン
Menaquinones メナキノン

Retinal is also called retinaldehyde or vitamin A aldehyde.

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Historical, Practical, or Relegated to Quackery

The Gutenberg project is famous for making ebooks and related materials from the public domain available in one location. They have quite a bit on the Medical bookshelf, particularly for those with historical inclinations.



もっと読むMore: ““

Gutenberg Project Medical Bookshelf Screenshot


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医学の分野・領域 Fields/Areas of Medicine

From: 医学生の教科書

原文/Source: 「医学生が使用する教科書の選び方、教科書の個別解説を行っています。解説している内容は、① 基礎医学の教科書、② 臨床医学の教科書、③ 成書と簡単教科書、④ 国試・CBT対策の4つになります…本サイトの情報源は、私自身の学習経験、周りの使用状況や評判、ネット上の情報です。教科書はかなり吟味しましたので、その経験を活かしています。また、医学教科書アンケートにて皆さんの使用感も投票いただいています…教科書選択の参考情報にお使いください。」

Translation: “I will be explaining the choice of text books that medical students will use, and I will be making individual commentary on text books. The content that I will be making commentary on is in the four areas of (1) basic medical text books, (2) clinical medicine text books, (3) books and simple text books, and (4) state examination/ answers…..The sources of the information for this site are my own learning experience, surrounding usage conditions or reputation, and information on the Internet. Since text books have been fairly scrutinized, they keep that experience alive. Also, with the Medical Text Book Questionnaire, we would like to have you all cast your vote for your impression from use…. Please use the content of this site as reference information for selecting text books.”

医学科目 発音 Medical Subject
解剖学 かいぼうがく Anatomy
組織学 Histology
生理学 Physiology
生化学 Biochemistry
薬理学 Pharmacology
免疫学 Immunology
微生物学 びせいぶつがく Microbiology
病理学 Pathology
法医学 Forensic medicine/pathology
発生・生命科学 Embryology/life science
メジャー科 Major Specializations
循環器 じゅんかんき circulatory organs
循環器科 じゅんかんきか Cardiology
消化器学 digestive organs
消化器学 Gastroenterology
肝・胆・膵 かん・たん・すい liver/gallbladder/pancreas
呼吸器  こきゅうき respiratory organs
神経 nerves
救急 Emergency
内分泌・代謝 ないぶんぴ・たいしゃ endocrine/metabolism
アレルギー・膠原病 …こうげんびょう allergy/collagen diseases
血液 blood
血液学 hematology
感染症 infectious diseases
腎臓 じんぞう kidneys
小児産婦 しょうに・さんぷ Infants and Women in Childbirth
小児科 しょうにか Pediatrics
産婦人科 さんふじんか Maternity and gynecology department
婦人科 Gynecology
産科 Obstetrics
マイナー科 Minor Specializations
整形外科 Orthopaedic/plastic surgery
泌尿器科 ひにょうきか Urology
皮膚科 ひふか Dermatology
眼科 がんか Ophthalmology
耳鼻咽喉科 じびいんこうか Otorhinolaryngology: ear, nose and throat
放射線科 Radiology department
精神科 Psychiatry



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”Search Linguee”:

Trying to determine whether ケルダール分析システム should be Kjeldahl Analysis System or Kjeldahl Analytics System, I stumbled across “Linguee”, which leads by example. Linguee claims to be a unique translation resource. Let’s find out.

“Lingueeは独自編集した辞書と検索エンジンを組み合わせた、他に類を見ないサイトです。この検索エンジンにより、二言語で書かれた一億ものネット上のテキストを単語と表現で検索することができます。” (原文)

“Linguee is a unique translation tool combining an editorial dictionary and a search engine with which you can search billions of bilingual texts for words and expressions.” (Source)


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Lymphedema is a condition of localized fluid retention and tissue swelling caused by a compromised lymphatic system, which normally returns interstitial fluid to the thoracic duct and then the bloodstream.1


The condition can be inherited, though it is frequently caused by cancer treatments, and by parasitic infections. Though incurable and progressive, a number of treatments can ameliorate symptoms. Tissues with lymphedema are at risk of infection.1

lymphoedema is the spelling in British English, and is also known as lymphatic obstruction.


There’s no cure for lymphedema. But it can be managed with early diagnosis and diligent care of your affected limb.3



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